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Artistic creative clusters in France : a statistical approach

Les clusters artistiques en France : une approche statistique
Daniel Sanchez-Serra
p. 6-18

Résumés

L’économie de la connaissance souligne l’importance des savoirs localisés comme facteur immatériel dans la nouvelle concurrence mondiale. La créativité est alors un élément crucial de notre capacité à innover, donc un élément déterminant de la croissance et de la compétitivité des économies modernes. Cependant, la dimension territoriale n’est pas toujours valorisée malgré l'accent mis dans la littérature sur l'absence d'une distribution spatiale uniforme de la créativité. Une analyse de la distribution spatiale des différents types d’industries créatives, en France notamment, semble nécessaire. Compte tenu de la relation entre culture et développement local, le secteur artistique est une industrie créative particulièrement intéressante à étudier. En utilisant les données du recensement de 1999 et un découpage du territoire en zones d’emploi, on peut identifier 63 clusters d’emplois artistiques en France. Nous mettons cependant l’accent sur deux types de « secteurs artistiques » tels qu’ils peuvent être approchés dans les statistiques de l’INSEE : activités récréatives, culturelles et sportives ; édition, imprimerie, reproduction d’enregistrements.

L’hypothèse de départ selon laquelle la localisation de ces emplois artistiques est plus concentrée que la localisation du total des emplois, en particulier au profit de Paris et de sa région, est confirmée par l’analyse. L’objectif de cet article est double : d’une part, fournir des données sur l’existence de clusters artistiques en France, et d’autre part, travailler à l’échelle des zones d’emploi, unité territoriale qui a été peu utilisée dans les travaux antérieurs.

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Introduction

1Knowledge economy stresses the importance of knowledge or localised knowledge as an immaterial factor in the new competitive world. Nowadays, knowledge is a crucial competitive element not only for companies but also for the territory in which they are located (Lazzeroni, 2010). The OECD stated that local development should not be reduced to the modernisation of the export base but should also be based on the appropriate organisation of the relations between different actors at the local level. At the same time, an important debate on the role of culture and creativity as central elements to local development is emerging in academic studies of urban and economic development (Power and Scott, 2004 ; Ginsburgh and Throsby, 2006 ; European Commission, 2008). According to this idea, the European Commission established 2009 as the European Year of Creativity and Innovation in order to increase awareness of the relevance of making Europe more creative and innovative.

2Several academic studies underline that arts and culture have become one of the central elements of local development (Benhamou, 2001 ; Bille and Schulze, 2006 ; Chapain and Comunian, 2009) and A. J. Scott (2000a) highlights that cities have played a fundamental role as generators of cultural and economic activity. Although artistic concentrations can emerge spontaneously, the OECD (2005) stresses that cultural industrial concentrations can also be deliberated. Due to the fact that several cities have experienced a process of deindustrialisation of the city centre, and as a consequence a reduction of the number of employment (Bille and Schulze, 2006), some political projects of revitalisation of this area have been implemented. Art and culture can contribute to attract creative agents. But P-M. Menger (2006) emphasises that artistic activities tend to be spatially concentrated in few locations. Recent studies have analysed the geographical concentration of creative activities and the conditions that promote the attraction of such activities. Findings show that even if these activities are increasingly widespread on a global scale, they tend to cluster throughout space (Florida, 2008 ; Florida et al., 2008).

3This article aims at contributing to the broad topic of spatial concentration of creative activities, and in particular of artistic activities. The hypothesis is that the localisation of artistic industries is more concentrated than the localisation of total employment. The methodology to identify artistic clusters and the analysis of the 1999 Census data concerning some artistic activities in the French territory is the main contribution of this study.

4The paper is divided into two sections. Section 1 explains the theoretical framework and defines artistic industries. Section 2 establishes the patterns of localisation of artistic local labour systems and then the geography of artistic clusters in France. The conclusion gives an overview of policy implications of the unequal spatial distribution of artistic and creative clusters for local development.

1. Theoretical framework: art, creative clusters and territory

1.1. Artistic creativity and economic development

5Relevant authors of the economic theory, such as Adam Smith or David Ricardo regarded art as an economically unimportant domain, which was more related to recreational activities rather than to productive ones. Nevertheless, the interest on the role of creativity and its effect on the economic performance of territories has old roots in economic thought. Several schools and researchers starting from A. Marshall (1890/1963), J. A. Schumpeter (1943) and F. A. Hayek (1945) have underlined the importance of knowledge and creativity in economic terms. Subsequently, economists of growth (Arrow, 1962) and economist of the new growth theory (Romer, 1990; Grossman and Helpman, 1994) made similar claims.

6Indeed, developed economies have shifted in recent decades from an economy based on the intensive utilisation of raw materials to a creative and knowledge economy (Knight, 1995; Trullén et al., 2002). The creative economy can be understood as an evolving concept based on the idea that creative and innovative assets can have an impact on the economic and social development of a territory (UNCTAD, 2008). In this sense it refers to the economic model where people, their ideas and creations are more important than machines to increase the competitiveness of production activities. One of the main characteristics of the creative economy is that it can be understood as an emerging paradigm that from a unidisciplinary methodological framework evolves into a multidisciplinary area of research. It is in this new model where experts of different disciplines, such as economists as well as sociologists, economic geographers, urban planners and cultural and media studies academics, have sought to unify the theories of economic, regional and cultural growth into a single open-system analytic framework, and in this sense they have created a single interface for the same scientific debate (Potts, 2006; Lazzaretti et al., 2008 ; UNCTAD, 2008).

7Nevertheless, there is no agreement in the literature on whether creativity is an attribute of individuals or rather a process, by which original ideas and new creations are generated (UNCTAD, 2008). However, it can be understood as a human characteristic and effort that is manifest in a myriad of fields and situations, from artistic, scientific to economic areas (European Commission, 2008; UNCTAD, 2008). Regarding artistic creativity, artists are considered intelligent and imaginative people with abilities and capacities acquired in a continuous learning process, which allow them to generate and transform existing knowledge and information into new original ideas (Van Widen and Van Den Berg, 2004; UNCTAD, 2008). Their role for an effective response to the challenges and opportunities of modern economies has been highlighted by several scholars (Pratt, 2008, for example). This is probably related to the understanding of creativity as a process of creation and destruction (Schumpeter, 1943; Scott, 2006), the so-called “creative destruction”, which is a crucial element for the dynamism of the market.

1.2. Space, artistic spillover and creative clusters

8A special insight provided by Marshall’s theory regarding creativity is the spatial dimension. A. Marshall (1890/1963) emphasised that although people do not have the capability to create material, they can produce value when they give useful forms to things. In other words, the knowledge generation that comes from the creation of new ideas, new technologies or new business models, is an intrinsic capability of people (Florida, 2005). Moreover, this innovative process can benefit from the spatial proximity of individuals. In this sense, the concept of industrial atmosphere established by Marshall can be extended to an artistic context by saying that the innovative work of an artist or a company will be analysed and improved by the rest of the artists or companies localised in the same territory. UNCTAD (2008) refers to this phenomenon as artistic spillover. New ideas generated from the spatial concentration of creative activities give place to the creation of more creative intensive production in creative clusters (Le Blanc, 2000; Maskell and Lorenzen, 2004 ; Cooke et al., 2007 ; Lazzaretti et al., 2008).

9P. Maskell and M. Lorenzen (2004) and P. Cooke et al. (2007) define a cluster as a spatial concentration of activities or workers which are capable of generating, transferring and using knowledge. As in industrial districts and milieux innovateurs, the spatial proximity between agents in clusters provides competitive advantages. Companies in which tacit knowledge plays an important role tend to be clustered in the space in order to benefit from external economies (Cooke et al., 2007; OECD, 2008). These externalities derive from the concentration of companies, suppliers and workers with specialised abilities. Cooke et al. (2007) state that spatial proximity matters in the process of information exchange. Then, as a result of the concentration of different agents and their face to face interaction, new knowhow and new technologies are more easily invented and produced by learning or by imitation.

10Recent studies show indeed that creative activities are not distributed uniformly over the space (Scott, 2005; Florida, 2008 ; Florida et al., 2008 ; Cooke and Lazzaretti, 2008). In France, C. Lacour and S. Puissant (2008) and S. Chantelot (2009) have also found that talented people and the creative class seem to be concentrated in the metropolitan areas. As artistic activities are part of creative activities, our aim is now to analyse the patterns of their localisation to highlight the artistic creative local labour systems in France.

1.3. Defining artistic activities among creative industries

11Creative industries are commonly defined as those industries which have their origin in individual creativity, skills and talent (DCMS, 2001). In this sense, creative industries not only refer to having a strong artistic component but also to any economic activity producing symbolic products (UNCTAD, 2008). Cultural industries comprise all enterprises that combine creation, production, dissemination and intermediation of artistic and cultural products or services (OECD, 2005 ; Fesel and Söndermann, 2007). In this regard, T. Addison (2008) defines “cultural talent” as people who work in the visual arts, music, theatre performance, dance, literature, crafts, design, architecture, fashion and related fields. So the performing arts and the visual arts are in the core of the cultural industries (OECD, 2005). On the one hand, UNCTAD (2008) considers that the performing arts covers generally all sorts of live performance by artists for an audience, such as theatre, opera, poetry, dance, ballet, concerts, the circus and puppetry. On the other, the visual arts usually comprise antiques, painting, sculpture and photography as well as other visual arts such as engravings, carvings, lithographs, collages and other ornaments (UNCTAD, 2008). The OECD (2005) underlines that audiovisual, records and book activities can also be considered as a part of the cultural industries core. Nowadays, live performing arts are increasingly affected by digital technologies, and this relation between the new media and traditional arts gives place to new forms of expression, promotion and storage of literature, music and the visual arts (Addison, 2008). In their mapping of creative local production systems in Italy and Spain, L. Lazzaretti et al. (2008) have divided creative industries into two main categories: cultural enterprises and creative enterprises. The former, are associated with more traditional sectors, such as publishing, music, performing arts or visual arts, while the latter are considered as creative enterprises such as software and computer services. Regardless of the diversity of all these definitions, we used an artistic classification based on L. Lazzaretti et al. (2008) and EMCC (2006) to determine the level of specialisation in artistic activities in France.

2. The geography of artistic clusters in France

2.1. Methodology: the choice of statistical data and territorial units

12The identification of artistic clusters will rely on two dimensions: the sectoral and the territorial dimension. Firstly, regarding the sectoral dimension, arts can be measured by using Official Standard Industrial and Standard Occupational classifications (Creigh-Tyte, 2005). Initially, some studies analysed creativity and culture separately because they were considered different elements (DCMS, 2001; Towse, 2003). Recently, as T. Flew (2002), OECD (2005) and L. Lazzaretti et al. (2008) underline, cultural and creative companies can be considered as synonymous or related terms. Performing arts can be identified as a subsector inside the creative and cultural industries. From EMCC (2006) and L. Lazzaretti et al. (2008) we can define the performing arts sector as a subset of activities from NACE 92 (Recreational, cultural and sporting activities) together with the NACE 22 activities (Publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media) as presented in table 1.

Table1. Artistic industries NACE Rev.1

NACE

Recreational, cultural and sporting activities

92.1

Motion picture and video activities

92.2

Radio and television activities

92.3

Other entertainment activities

NACE

Publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media

22.1

Publishing

22.2

Printing and service activities related to printing

22.3

Reproduction of recorded media

Source : Based on Lazzeretti et al. (2008, p. 8) and EMCC (2005).

13Secondly, regarding the territorial dimension, the local level appears to represent the most suitable scale for the analysis of creative clustering (Lazzeroni, 2010). France is characterised by three administrative levels (the region, the department and the commune or municipality), which do not fully capture neither the economic nor the social interaction area. In fact, as Lazzeroni (2010) stresses, the regional and department scale would seem too broad and diversified to represent the real economic area while the municipality level does not capture all the spillovers that occur in a creative cluster since its spillovers usually extend to neighbouring municipalities. In France, however, there is also an intermediate territorial level, the zone d’emploi (ZE), which is composed of an aggregation of municipalities-communes. One ZE belongs to one single region but one zone d’emploi can be distributed over two or more departments. ZEs are identified using information available on commuting practices between municipalities. INSEE (the French National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies) defines ZE as a geographic space in which most of the resident working population lives and works. In practice, commuting (home to work travelling) was the variable used to determine the boundaries of the 348 ZEs in 1990. ZEs were created by INSEE and the Ministry of Labour to identify territorial units especially suitable for local employment studies. Consequently I consider ZEs as territorial unit for the statistical analysis of artistic clusters, even if the concentration of creative activities and the spillovers from artistic factors may go beyond the boundaries of ZE (Lazzeroni, 2010).

2.2. The spatial distribution of jobs in artistic industries in France (1999)

  • 1 NACE Rev. 1 from 1992 to 2004.
  • 2 I would like to thank Alexandre Kych from the Centre Maurice Halbwachs who provided me with the sta (...)

14Using the proposed classification of artistic industries (Table 1)1 and 1999 Census data2, France has about 431 000 jobs in artistic industries (table 2). Artistic industries share around 2 % of the total employment. Regarding the type of artistic industries in that country, jobs in artistic industries are distributed uniformly between the two artistic industrial subcategories. Recreational, cultural and sporting activities add up to about 203 000 jobs (47,2 % of the total artistic jobs) while publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media concentrates about 228 000 jobs (52,8 % of the total artistic jobs).

Table 2. Employment weight of artistic industries in France (1999)

Number of jobs

 %

 % over total jobs

Recreational, cultural and sporting activities

203,481

47.2 %

0.9 %

Motion picture and video activities

37,765

8.8 %

0.2 %

Radio and television activities

32,790

7.6 %

0.1 %

Other entertainment activities

132,926

30.8 %

0.6 %

Publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media

227,593

52.8 %

1.0 %

Publishing

98,355

22.8 %

0.4 %

Printing and service activities related to printing

125,851

29.2 %

0.6 %

Reproduction of recorded media

3,387

0.8 %

0.0 %

Artistic industries

431,074

100.0 %

1.9 %

Total employment

22,800,731

100 %

Source : Elaborated from INSEE Census (1999).

15Regarding each individual artistic industry, other entertainment activities, which concentrate artistic and literature creation and interpretation, dancing schools, cultural centers among others, is a particular important artistic industry in France. This industry concentrates 30,8 % of the artistic activities in France (around 133 000 jobs), followed by printing and service activities (29,2 % and 126 000 artistic jobs) and the publishing industry (22,8 % and 98 000 artistic jobs). Although France concentrates 83 % of the artistic employment in just three industries, the rest (17 %) is also distributed in three artistic industries. In this regard, motion picture and video activities concentrates almost 38 000 jobs (8,8 % of the total artistic jobs), followed by radio and television activities, which concentrates around 33 000 jobs (7,6 %). And finally, reproduction or recorded media which only concentrates 3 400 jobs (0,8 % of the total artistic jobs).

  • 3 But A. Scott (2000a: 194) analysed in addition other «cultural industries» such as jewelry, perfume (...)

16Figure 1 and 2 show the distribution of the total employment and the artistic employment in France using 1999 census data. Both are characterised by a strong spatial concentration. Nevertheless artistic employment appears to be specially concentrated in Paris and in its surrounding area. Paris has been identified by Allen J. Scott as a magnet for artistic talent from the rest of the country as well as from abroad. He underlines that Paris contains the most important concentrations of skilled artisans in France (Scott, 2000a)3. In fact, in 1999, Paris concentrated about 97 000 artistic jobs which represent a 23 % of the total artistic jobs in France and 1 600 000 total jobs which represent 7 % of the total national jobs. Nanterre is the zone d’emploi which concentrates the second largest concentration of total and artistic jobs in France, with almost 5 % of the total artistic jobs (20 000 artistic jobs) while it just contains 3,3 % of the total jobs in France (760 000 jobs).

Figure 1. Total employment distribution in France

Figure 1. Total employment distribution in France

Source : Elaborated from INSEE Census (1999).

Figure 2. Total employment distribution in artistic industries in France

Figure 2. Total employment distribution in artistic industries in France

Source : Elaborated from INSEE Census (1999).

2.3. Identification of Artistic Clusters in France (1999)

17In order to identify artistic clusters, we define in France an artistic local production system as a ZE where there is a high territorial specialisation of artistic industries. Regarding territorial specialisation, the Balassa-Hoover location quotient (LQ) is the most easy and widely employed method to identify it. It has the basic property of capturing spatial agglomeration independently of the size of the territorial unit selected (O’Donoghue and Glave, 2004; Von Hofe and Chen, 2006). This location coefficient was applied to analyse the concentration of creative activities in the Italian and Spanish Local Production systems (Lazzaretti et al., 2008 ; Lazzaretti et al., 2009) and in several academic publications about the metropolitan areas in the United-States and in the European Union. This index compares the industrial level in a local economy with regard to the levels of the same industry at national scale. A LQ value above 1 indicates the higher specialisation of the territorial unit analysed with regard to the nation, while an index below 1 indicates a non specialisation of the territorial unit analysed.

18The formula is :

19Where Eij is the number of employees in the industry i in the region j, Ei is the total number of employees in industry i, Ej is the number of employees in the region j, while E is the total employment at the supra regional unit (normally the country).

20Following a similar methodology to the one proposed by L. Lazzaretti et al. (2008), an artistic cluster can be oriented towards Recreational, cultural and sporting activities, Publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media or a combination of both. To take this into account, we consider three criteria.

  • Recreational, cultural and sporting artistic clusters will be identified as Zones d’emploi with a LQ higher than 1 and a minimum of 250 jobs in recreational, cultural and sporting industries ;

  • Publishing, Printing and reproduction recorded media clusters will be identified as Zones d’emploi with a LQ higher than 1 and a minimum of 250 jobs in publishing, printing and reproduction recorded media industries ;

  • Mixed artistic clusters will be the Zones d’emploi where the two precedent criteria happen simultaneously.

Table 3. Typology of French artistic clusters (1999)

N

ZE

Type

jobs

 %

1

Paris

M

97427

36.9 %

2

Nanterre

M

19676

7.5 %

3

Boulogne-Billancourt

M

17495

6.6 %

4

Montreuil

M

10691

4.1 %

5

Saint-Denis

M

9526

3.6 %

6

Lagny-sur-Marne

M

8880

3.4 %

7

Lille

M

7074

2.7 %

8

Marseille-Aubagne

Rec

6371

2.4 %

9

Créteil

M

5549

2.1 %

10

Clermont-Ferrand

M

5006

1.9 %

11

Rennes

M

5002

1.9 %

12

Strasbourg

M

4898

1.9 %

13

Montpellier

M

4090

1.6 %

14

Nancy

M

3615

1.4 %

15

Roubaix-Tourcoing

M

3340

1.3 %

16

Tours

M

3224

1.2 %

17

Vitry-sur-Seine

M

3052

1.2 %

18

Saint-Étienne

Pub

3033

1.1 %

19

Limoges

M

2971

1.1 %

20

Poitiers

M

2760

1.0 %

21

Évry

M

2237

0.8 %

22

Reims

Pub

2200

0.8 %

23

Cergy

Pub

2101

0.8 %

24

Mayenne-Nord-et-Est

M

1868

0.7 %

25

Évreux

M

1718

0.7 %

26

Douaisis

M

1702

0.6 %

27

Angoulême

M

1591

0.6 %

28

Avignon

Rec

1584

0.6 %

29

Pithiviers

M

1563

0.6 %

30

Meaux

M

1290

0.5 %

31

Chartres

Pub

1143

0.4 %

32

Orsay

Pub

1119

0.4 %

33

Mortagne-au-Perche-L'Aigle

M

1106

33

34

Blois

Pub

1062

34

35

Morlaix

M

1016

35

36

Colmar-Neuf-Brisach

Pub

999

36

37

Périgueux

Pub

972

37

38

Flers

M

851

38

39

Beaune

M

831

39

40

Laval

Pub

830

40

41

Mâcon

Pub

818

41

42

Sud-Ouest-Champenois

M

710

42

43

Alençon-Argentan

Pub

700

43

44

Saint-Dié-des-Vosges

M

636

44

45

Coulommiers

M

629

45

46

Cosne-sur-Loire

M

626

46

47

Narbonne

Pub

626

47

48

Flandre-Lys

Pub

625

48

49

Nogent-le-Rotrou

M

597

49

50

Sarthe-Nord

Pub

575

50

51

Fontainebleau

M

535

51

52

Saint-Amand-Montrond

M

500

52

53

Toul

M

484

53

54

Cognac

Pub

482

54

55

Sarreguemines

Pub

477

55

56

Segréen-Sud-Mayenne

Pub

459

56

57

Saint-Lô

Pub

451

57

58

Bernay

M

440

58

59

Brignoles

Rec

407

59

60

Oyonnax

Pub

389

60

61

Aubigny

M

361

61

62

Thann-Cernay

Pub

351

62

63

Crest-Die

M

272

63

64

Champagnole

M

252

64

Total Artistic jobs

 

263865

Notes: M = mixed artistic activities, Pub. = Publishing, Printing and reproduction recorded media avtivities, Rec. = Recreational, cultural and sprting activities

Source : Elaborated from INSEE Census (1999).

21Table 3 reports the typology of the artistic clusters identified in France. More concretely, 63 artistic clusters have been identified in France (using the usual cut off value of 1, with a minimum value of 250 employees in artistic industries). In this regard, it appears that just 18 % of the total zones d’emploi add up to 264 000 employees in artistic activities (1 % of total employment) which represent 61 % of the total artistic employees in France.

22In France, 11 mixed artistic clusters have been identified (17 % of the total artistic clusters). They concentrate 181 000 employees in artistic industries which represent 68,8 % of the jobs in these industries concentrated in the artistic clusters in France. Additionally, 46 zones d’emploi (73 % of the total artistic clusters) have been identified as specialised in publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media. They concentrate more than 66 000 employees in artistic industries (25,2 % of the total employees in artistic industries concentrated in the French artistic clusters). Finally, 6 zones d’emploi have been identified as specialised in recreational, cultural and sporting activities (9,5 %) concentrating almost 16 000 employees in artistic industries.

Figure 3. Artistic specialisation in the zones d’emploi of France, 1999

Figure 3. Artistic specialisation in the zones d’emploi of France, 1999

Source : Elaborated from INSEE Census (1999)

23Figure 3 shows the spatial pattern of artistic clusters in France. As it has been mentioned before, artistic industries are highly concentrated in few places. Mixed and Publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media clusters are concentrated in Paris, Flers, Mortagne-au-Perche-l’Aigle and Lille, while the zones d’emploi specialised in recreational, cultural and sporting activities are basically concentrated in the south of the country, more concretely the territories of Marseille, Montpellier and Narbonne. Publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media clusters are more dispersed over the territory than the rest of artistic activities, nevertheless it shows a certain high level of concentration in the surroundings of the mixed clusters, such as Paris, and in the centre of France. Paris is the most specialised zone d’emploi (concentrating 37 % of its total employees in artistic activities), followed by Nanterre (20 000 jobs and 7,5%) and Boulogne-Billancourt (17 500 jobs and 6,6 %).

Conclusion

24The aim of this paper was to analyse the spatial distribution of the artistic industries in the French territory using 1999 census data. An artistic classification based on L. Lazzaretti et al. (2008) and EMCC (2006) was used to determine the level of specialisation in artistic activities of the 348 zones d’emploi of France. The hypothesis that creative activities are not homogeneously distributed over the space and that artistic industries are more concentrated than the total employment is confirmed. This study has found out that 264 000 employees in artistic industries are concentrated in just 63 zones d’emploi which are thus specialised in artistic activities and can be considered as artistic clusters. Paris is the most specialised one and the very dominant artistic cluster in France. If the relevance of the article is the identification of artistic clusters in the French territory, it is only a first step. In a further analysis, we would have to study the role of these spatial concentrations of artistic activities in the local development and revitalisation of cities.

25The concentration of a diversity of artistic expressions in some places has an impact on the nature of the intra-urban economic activity (Scott, 2000a ; Brito Henriques and Theil, 2000). Culture is considered as a contributor of the social capacity of local players to exchange and communicate ideas contributing to enlarge the social capital (Benhamou, 2001 ; Chapain and Comunian, 2009). From OECD (2005) and T. Bille and G. G. Schulze (2006) it can be deduced that arts and culture can contribute to the local development in three different ways. Firstly, culture may bring common guidelines that encourage synergies among market actors and facilitate agreements between them. Secondly, artistic and cultural atmosphere could create an attractive environment to people and firms (Scanlon and Longley, 1984 ; Myerscough, 1988). According to this idea, more money will be spent on artistic and cultural activities but also on other related local goods and services. Such externalities will contribute to the attraction of new firms which at the same time may find more qualified and creative people. Thus, arts and culture in general could have an impact on local development by attracting people, companies and investment (Bille and Schulze, 2006). And thirdly, as B. Knudsen et al. (2007) observe, proximity is a key element in the process of creativity. The geographic proximity of agents enables better interactions between them and this facilitates external economies (location and urbanisation advantages) which are necessary for creation of new ideas and products.

26Based on the idea that arts and culture may help local development by attracting creative agents, over the last decades several development strategies have been applied at the local level. In terms of policy recommendations, the OECD highlights the 4 objectives that are assigned to the creative clusters deliberately generated :

  • to reinforce the distinctiveness and attractiveness of the city and thus its competitiveness ;

  • to stimulate artistic and cultural entrepreneurialism ;

  • to find new uses for decay sites and to stimulate cultural diversity. An ambitious political agenda to strengthen a creative and knowledge economy.

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Notes

1 NACE Rev. 1 from 1992 to 2004.

2 I would like to thank Alexandre Kych from the Centre Maurice Halbwachs who provided me with the statistical data for this study.

3 But A. Scott (2000a: 194) analysed in addition other «cultural industries» such as jewelry, perfumes and cosmetics, fur industry and leather clothing.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Figure 1. Total employment distribution in France
Crédits Source : Elaborated from INSEE Census (1999).
URL http://tem.revues.org/docannexe/image/2114/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 532k
Titre Figure 2. Total employment distribution in artistic industries in France
Crédits Source : Elaborated from INSEE Census (1999).
URL http://tem.revues.org/docannexe/image/2114/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 428k
URL http://tem.revues.org/docannexe/image/2114/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 24k
Titre Figure 3. Artistic specialisation in the zones d’emploi of France, 1999
Crédits Source : Elaborated from INSEE Census (1999)
URL http://tem.revues.org/docannexe/image/2114/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 280k
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Daniel Sanchez-Serra, « Artistic creative clusters in France : a statistical approach », Territoire en mouvement Revue de géographie et aménagement [En ligne], 19-20 | 2013, mis en ligne le 01 mai 2015, consulté le 16 août 2017. URL : http://tem.revues.org/2114 ; DOI : 10.4000/tem.2114

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Auteur

Daniel Sanchez-Serra

PhD Student in the Applied Economics Department
Autonomous University of Barcelona, Edifici B
08193 Bellaterra
Barcelona
Spain
daniel.sanchezse@e-campus.uab.cat

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